PIE VERSIONS

All versions of PIE have basic "Pressure Transient Analysis" (PTA) capabilities that can be used to process and store large volumes of raw data, prepare data for analysis, display analysis-plots, and perform basic PTA calculations. Some specific capabilities are:

- Process up to 20 million rate and pressure measurements into a set of "gauge-data". There is no limit on the number of sets of gauge-data that can be stored in a PIE-file. A "Gauge-Data Manager" is used to organise and manage multiple sets of gauge-data stored in a PIE-file.
- Prepare "analysis-data" by sampling the measurements from one or more sets of gauge-data. There is no limit on the number of sets of analysis-data that can be stored in a PIE-file. An "Analysis-Data Manager" is used to organise and manage multiple sets of analysis-data stored in a PIE-file.

- Compare the measurements between two sets of gauge-data and plot the differences between the two.
- Do a "tide analysis" to account for the effect of ocean tides on the pressure measurements, and obtain an estimate of the reservoir total compressibility.

- Display standard "Derivative", "Horner", and "Superposition" analysis-plots
- Display specialised analysis-plots (e.g. a "superposition square-root" plot for hydraulic-fracture analysis)
- Apply the gas pseudo-pressure transform for the analysis of gas wells. PIE includes a number of PVT correlations to define gas properties used to compute the pseudo-pressure, and other analysis results.
- Draw straight-lines on the analysis-plots
to obtain estimates of permeability, skin, distance to a fault,
hydraulic-fracture length, fracture conductivity, permeability anisotropy
(k
_{v}/k_{h}), and extrapolated reservoir pressure (P*). - Perform a "draw-down type-curve" analysis for homogeneous and double-porosity reservoirs.
- Use "copy and paste" operations to copy plots and data tables from PIE into other documents, or copy data from a document to put into PIE.
- Use "copy and paste" operations within PIE to compare analysis-plots for different flow-periods ("plot overlays").
- Export the data and results saved in a PIE-file to a spread-sheet using an "XML" format.

The following provides a brief summary of each version of PIE.

The "Reader" version is free of charge, and provides all of the basic PTA capabilities described above. Download this version here.

Use this version of PIE to view the contents of a PIE data-file, or do "Basic Surveillance" analysis work. Note that the "Basic Surveillance" type of analysis covers most routine PTA work, and is described in more detail here.

The "Reader" version can be used in combination with short-term licenses of the other paid versions of PIE to provide a low-cost PTA solution. The free "Reader" version is used to prepare data and do the basic PTA. Then either the "Basic", "Full", or "Ultra" version is leased for a short period of time to do more advanced PTA (deconvolution, type-curve simulation, multi-well simulation, etc.). This combination means advanced PTA capabilities are only paid for when needed.

The Basic version of PIE represents an entry-level application that has all the analysis features of the "Full" version shown below, but is restricted to just the following basic type-curve models:

· Homogeneous Reservoir

· Double-Porosity Reservoir

· Hydraulic-Fracture (including a "partial-penetration" fracture)

· Interference-Test model

Note that all of these basic type-curve models include reservoir boundaries (linear, channel, closed-rectangle, and intersecting).

The "Full" version of PIE adds the full type-curve model catalogue, which ranges from a simple homogeneous reservoir to complex multi-lateral wells in a layered reservoir. Details on the type-curve model catalogue can be viewed here.

The "Full" version also includes a complete suite of advanced PTA options:

- Type-curve simulation to compute a pressure response given a rate-history, or compute rates given a well-bore flowing pressure history.
- Non-linear regression to find the best fit between a type-curve simulation and the measured data.
- Multi-well simulation to account for the "pressure interference" caused by production at offset wells.
- A "synthetic PLT" option to compute the rate contribution from individual layers in a multi-layer reservoir.

· *and more... *

The "Ultra" version of PIE adds a sophisticated deconvolution algorithm to the "Full" version of the program. This deconvolution algorithm is based on the work of von Schroeter and Levitan. The algorithm also includes enhancements to correctly account for pressure depletion in a gas reservoir. This deconvolution algorithm is particularly well suited for the analysis of a long well production history to estimate the size and shape of the connected reservoir drainage-area.

A PIE license has a start and expiration date.

Prior to the license start date, the program can be installed and will run as the "Reader" version. Once the license start date is reached, the program will automatically change to the licensed version.

When the license expires, the installed program will revert back to the "Reader" version. There is no time-limit for using the program while it runs as the "Reader" version, so you can always access the data and analysis results in PIE-files that were created during the licensed period.

PIE is supplied "network ready" and can be installed on a central server for use throughout a particular site. The user has the choice of copying the program from a server to a local workstation, or by running the program directly off of a server.

The license manager is built into the application, so there are no "dongles" or separate programs to install on a central server.

All software leases and rentals include maintenance at no extra charge. WTS will notify users when updates to the program become available.